Classification and ways to eliminate the problem
Congenital diseases of the heart are disorders associated with anatomical disorders of the structure of the heart, namely the valves, septa and heart openings. As a result of the formation of this pathology, the heart is disrupted, provoking oxygen deficiency of organs and tissues of the body, which ultimately can lead to the onset of heart failure.
Types of congenital heart diseases
What is congenital heart disease and its classification? Generally, heart defects are divided into:
- congenital cyanotic heart diseases — the formation of pathology occurs at the stage of laying organs in the fetus as a result of exposure to endogenous or exogenous factors;
- acquired — the occurrence is possible at any age under the influence of atherosclerosis, cardiosclerosis, ischemic, or hypertension, rheumatism.
It is also customary to highlight:
- defects of the “white” type — there is no tendency to mix arterial and venous blood;
- defects of the “blue” type — venous blood enters the arterial bed, as a result of which oxygen deficiency is formed.
By the number of anatomical disorders:
- isolated — single lesions;
- combined — several anatomical elements of the heart suffer.
Depending on the congenital heart disease cause it’s possible to identify the type of heart condition and the way to treat it.
Causes for congenital heart disease
Congenital diseases of the heart occur due to several factors:
- infective endocarditis;
- injuries of a different nature.
Doctors do not fully diagnose the causes of most cases of types of congenital heart disease. These diseases can be caused by exposure to radiation on the body of a pregnant woman. Drugs, alcohol, various infections and certain medications during pregnancy can also cause birth defects. It’s very important to inform the doctor about all possible triggers to conduct proper treatments of congenital heart disease.
Congenital heart disease symptoms
In the clinical picture of the disease, there are general and specific symptoms, due to the anatomical localization of the defect. Common symptoms include:
- weakness and decreased ability to work;
- dizziness and fainting;
- shortness of breath and cyanosis (blue discoloration) of the skin;
- increase or decrease in blood pressure.
All these signs are the first signals and can only indirectly indicate the presence of congenital heart disease with cyanosis.
What is congenital heart disease consequence?
Congenital heart disease can lead to serious disturbances in the movement of blood through the vessels. Moreover, various types of congenital heart diseases can lead to the development of heart failure, heart rhythm disturbances, thromboembolic complications, disability and even death.
After 3 years of a child’s life, congenital cyanotic heart diseases are differentiated from rheumatism, non-rheumatic carditis, cardiomyopathies, bacterial endocarditis, disorders of the cardiovascular system. The latter are often based on congenital small anomalies and dysplasias of the connective tissue structures of the heart. It is also necessary to differentiate between congenital defects before starting treatments for congenital heart disease.
Congenital heart disease adult diagnosis
The diagnosis is established on the basis of the congenital heart disease symptom, data from an objective examination. During the examination, the doctor may pay attention to the lag in the pulse on one of the hands, the presence of pathological murmurs when listening to the heart, the presence of chest deformities. To recognize causes for congenital heart disease, a number of instrumental studies are carried out:
- Ultrasound of the heart;
- ECG and Echocardiography of the heart;
- X-ray examination;
- MSCT and MRI of the heart;
When diagnosing congenital diseases of the heart, examination of a pregnant woman is of great importance. For this, they also resort to ultrasound and invasive prenatal diagnostic methods such as amniocentesis. In case of suspicion of a formed defect, the child is transferred to a specialized department immediately after birth.
Treatments for congenital heart disease
When treating congenital cyanotic heart diseases, a mode of limited physical activity is prescribed. Depending on the character of the disease and types of congenital heart disease, our specialists will choose the best treatments of congenital heart disease. The doctor can advise taking several drugs. Surgery is often the most effective treatment for heart disease. It is aimed at completely eliminating congenital heart disease cause.
Our clinic provides complete diagnosis and treatment of heart defects of various forms. If you are concerned about the listed symptoms, be sure to sign up for an examination. Highly qualified specialists will individually prescribe the treatment for congenital heart disease in adults.