Cardiomyopathy is a change in the muscle of the heart due to often unexplained cardiomyopathy causes. The disease relates to primary myocardial damage that isn’t caused by an inflammatory, tumor or ischemic process.
In order to conduct cardiomyopathy diagnosis, it’s necessary to exclude other illnesses: congenital malformations, valvular heart defects, lesions caused by systemic vascular diseases, arterial hypertension, pericarditis, etc. Depending on the nature of anatomical and functional changes in the heart muscle, there are several types of this disorder:
- arrhythmogenic right ventricular.
The etiology of cardiomyopathy diagnosis has not been fully discovered. However, there are a number of probable factors that can cause the development of cardiomyopathy symptoms:
- hereditary predisposition;
- various viral infections;
- previously transferred myocarditis;
- damage to heart cells toxins and allergens;
- endocrine regulation disorders;
- conditions of the immune system.
It’s pivotal to reveal the actual reason for the illness development in order to plan the further cardiomyopathy treatment.
The manifestations of the illness are diverse and depend on a number of cardiomyopathy risk factors: the degree of myocardial hypertrophy, the presence and magnitude of the pressure gradient, mitral valve insufficiency, which is often found in patients, the degree of decrease in the left ventricular cavity and the severity of impaired pumping and diastolic functions of the heart, etc. Complaints are often absent.
However, as condition progresses, there may develop the following cardiomyopathy signs:
- Increasing heart failure.
- Shortness of breath on exertion.
- Fast fatigability.
- Swelling in the legs.
- Pale skin.
- Blue fingertips.
- Chest pain.
- Tendency to fainting, palpitations.
Laboratory diagnostics is important to monitor the effectiveness of therapy in assessing the state of water-salt balance, exclude some side effects of medications and also identify secondary cardiomyopathy causes.
Diagnosis of cardiomyopathy necessarily includes a description of the clinical picture and data from additional studies. The most common method — electrocardiography (ECG) — allows you to record signs of hypertrophy of the heart muscle, identify various forms of rhythm and conduction disturbances.
Echocardiography (EchoCG) is especially informative, which helps determine myocardial dysfunction. Due to the X-ray data, there may be identified dilatation (persistent increase in the lumen), hypertrophy (increase in volume and mass) of the heart muscle, as well as congestion in the lungs.
The main instrumental method for cardiomyopathy diagnosis for all types of cardiomyopathies is ultrasound of the heart.
Due to the lack of specific therapy, cardiomyopathy cure is aimed at preventing complications incompatible with life. If the disease is in a stable phase, all measures are prescribed and carried out on an outpatient basis.
With the help of our qualified cardiologists you may be prescribed different treatment depending on cardiomyopathy symptoms. So, the possible therapy steps may be the following:
- diuretics that reduce pulmonary and systemic venous congestion;
- cardiac glycosides, which help fight violations of myocardial contractility and pumping function;
- antiarrhythmic drugs to help correct your heart rate;
- anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents to prevent the occurrence of thromboembolic complications of cardiomyopathy.
- Surgery. Indicated in extremely severe cases.
In addition, our professionals emphasize the need to reduce physical activity, adhere to a diet, limit the consumption of animal fats and salt. Moreover, it’s strongly recommended to exclude bad habits and the impact of negative external factors. In such a way, there will be more chances to shorten cardiomyopathy treatment. Compliance with these recommendations will significantly reduce the load on the myocardium and slow the progression of heart failure.